Entries by Posted by Linda Rink (70)

Tuesday
Apr262016

CEEC Hosts Successful Policy Forum on NATO

From Karin Shuey, EANC Washington DC Director:

The Central and East European Coalition (CEEC; www.ceecoalition.us) hosted a timely and substantive event on Wednesday, April 19, to discuss the topic “NATO Stance on Russia:  Vision or Reaction?”  The keynote speaker was Dr. Michael Carpenter, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense with responsibility for Russia, Ukraine, and Eurasia, who gave the Pentagon’s view of recent events and U.S. actions in response.  He was followed by a panel of three additional distinguished experts:  Ambassador Kurt Volker, former U.S. Permanent Representative to NATO; Lithuanian Deputy Chief of Mission Mindaugas Zickus; and Damian Murphy, Senior Professional Staff Member, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations (SFRC).  Welcoming remarks by Estonian American National Council President Marju Rink-Abel and moderation and closing by Mamuka Tsereteli of the Georgian Association in the U.S.A. rounded out the event.  Mrs. Rink-Abel, Dr. Carpenter and Mr. Tsereteli (photos courtesy of JBANC)

A major theme of the discussion characterized Russia’s increasing aggression since 2008 not as just regional conflict but as a fundamental assault on the post-World War II international order.  The Kremlin’s propaganda campaign justifies its aggression by claiming that NATO has broken its promises to not pursue enlargement and is in the process of aggressively encircling Russia.  This therefore poses a serious threat that Russia is justified in defending in the interest of its citizens.  Claiming increased repression of those citizens is also part of the misinformation campaign.  In reality, no commitments were ever made by NATO on enlargement or deploying forces to new members’ territory. The nations that have joined NATO have done so voluntarily, according to their security interests and the NATO accession process.  Given that “[for Putin], it is not borders and state territories that matter, but people’s fortunes,”1 the panelists agreed that the West needs to push back in the face of Russia’s disregard of national sovereignty and territorial integrity. 

The seriousness with which the U.S. is responding to Russia’s actions is demonstrated by a four-fold increase over last year in President Obama’s request for 2017 European Reassurance Initiative (ERI) funding.  This annual request that started with the 2015 budget has received broad and deep bipartisan support in both houses of Congress and is expected to pass again this year.  ERI funding aims to ensure effective deterrence and defense of all allies.  It was noted more than once that the initiative’s emphasis is shifting from reassurance to deterrence.  The request includes funds to reconfigure NATO’s institutions to meet current threats, increase investments in infrastructure to support rapid reinforcement in response to threats from the east, and bolster the resilience of non-NATO partners.  Details of the request are available at this White House link.  Discussions at the NATO Warsaw Summit in July will include “NATO-izing” ERI, presumably to encourage other allies to develop parallel budget requests.

Leading up to the Warsaw summit, Congress will be engaged in debates on the composition of forces and equipment that will be funded by ERI.  Hearings will be scheduled to scrutinize the final details of the package and to amend the NATO treaty to allow for the accession of Montenegro.  CEEC members will no doubt be paying attention and participating in any open sessions that are announced.

The U.S. is also looking at other ways to help our partners as Russia makes efforts to influence European policy and politics.  Hearings with allied officials and visits to Europe by congress members and staffers keep the dialog on issues and priorities open.  ERI is the biggest piece of legislation on this year’s docket and our European partners have conveyed a clear sense of urgency for its passage.  The SFRC is also digging into options for countering Russian propaganda through Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and other outlets here and in Europe.  Protecting human rights through implementation of the Magnitsky Act, supporting the adoption of a global version of the act, and other anti-corruption efforts are another central focus of the committee.  Please see the Magnitsky Act Wikipedia page for more information.

Some areas were mentioned where more could be done.  There was a recommendation for NATO to engage as an alliance in ongoing wars – specifically in Ukraine, Georgia, Libya and Syria – under the hypothesis that failure to engage weakens the effectiveness of the alliance’s deterrence efforts.  There was disagreement on whether NATO needs to publish Russia’s specific violations.  Because there is no consensus on this matter, some feel that it is important to maintain unity in the alliance rather than reopen the issue. However, not doing so may lead to a perception of NATO as passive and reactive, and call into question its commitment to Article 5.  The point was also made that the U.S. is learning some steep lessons on electronic warfare (EW).  Russia has been developing world-class technology that poses a challenge to our counter-EW capability.  Through the wars in Ukraine and Syria, we are gaining a better understanding of Russian EW tactics to disrupt our battlefield communications, which will help us improve our capabilities for the future. Audience during Dr. Carpenter's remarks

The speakers agreed that NATO’s goal remains to cooperate peacefully with Russia; a return to the terms of the NATO-Russia Founding Act of 1997 would be welcome.  It is Russia’s actions that have nullified those terms, at least for the time being, and NATO’s response has been defensive and proportionate.  The sanctions imposed by member nations are having the desired effect and are strengthened by trans-Atlantic solidarity.  Loss of solidarity would undermine their effectiveness and is a concern when the EU reviews its continued support in June, even as the U.S. is looking for ways to increase the sanctions from our side.  The audience was also reminded that Russia has never shown an interest in cooperating with NATO and that we shouldn’t be too optimistic. 

Several of the speakers commended the CEEC for its work to push through legislation supporting Ukraine last year.  Similar efforts on ERI would help keep members of Congress focused on the issue during this election year with many competing interests.  Continued CEEC activism is important in calling attention to a number of issues discussed in CEEC’s policy paper, found on the CEEC website www.ceecoalition.us.

The forum was held in a stately paneled room in the Dirksen Senate office building and attended by over 100 friends of the central and east European region, including three ambassadors and representatives from the Department of State, 12 embassies and five Congressional offices.  Estonian Public Broadcasting and other media outlets were on hand to cover the event.

In the end, the answer to the forum’s theme probably had elements of both vision and reaction.  It is clear that we’re at this low point in U.S.-Russian relations directly because of Russia’s aggressive behavior.  NATO has been forced to react appropriately to deter further escalation.  The alliance may have a vision to get to peaceful cooperation, or at least the transparency and predictability necessary to preserve a stable international order, but that vision requires all parties to share compatible goals – a climate that does not seem to be on the horizon at the moment.  The CEEC looks forward to hosting future events to explore the alliance’s progress and inspire further support from our partners and constituents.

Tuesday
Mar292016

Remembering Victims of 1949 Deportations

A gathering to honor and remember the deportations of innocent citizens of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in March 1949 and victims from Belarus who celebrate their National Day, Friday March 25, 2016, was held at the Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington, DC. on Good Friday.  Speakers included representatives from the Embassies of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, the Belarusan community, JBANC, and the Estonian American National Council.Photo: Boris Mironov

The moment was particularly personal to the Estonian Embassy’s Deputy Chief of Mission Marki Tihhonova-Kreek, as she shared that her grandmother was part of the deportations and her mother was born in Siberia.  She speculated that every family in or from Estonia probably has been impacted in some way by the events of 1949 and invited us to contemplate how those dark days might hold meaning for us.  

EANC President Marju Rink-Abel took the opportunity to remind us that information about the deportations was hidden behind the Iron Curtain from public view and even now, the events are largely unknown in the West.  With today’s abundance of outlets for news and information-sharing, we need to ensure that such atrocities are exposed while they happen, are prevented or stopped if possible, and those committing them are held accountable.  

The thread running through the remarks of all the speakers was the importance of remembering the people affected by the injustices that occurred under communism.  Clear parallels were drawn between 1949 and current events in Ukraine and Syria.  The group gathered at the memorial on Good Friday stood in solidarity with those victims of today and pledged to return each year to honor those who suffered and remind us all that the suffering is not over.
Thursday
Mar242016

An Estonian Advocate on the Washington Scene

By Karin Shuey, Washington DC Director, Estonian American National Council

Have you ever wondered what exactly goes on in our nation’s capital and how it relates to you as an Estonian-American and the issues you care about?  As the Estonian American National Council’s new Washington DC director, I’ve spent my first couple months on the job learning exactly that – and have found the process quite interesting!Secretary Kerry testifying to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the State Department budget

This is the first of a series of updates of on the Washington scene that I will be writing, and I hope that you will find it of interest. 

It will be posted on the Estonian American National Council’s website (www.estosite.org) and on EANC’s Facebook page.  We hope to establish a mailing list of people interested in receiving these updates.  If you are, please send your email address to erku@estosite.org.

My first challenge has been figuring out who all the players are and where they fit into the development of policy and legislation.  So far, I’ve met with people in four major areas – Congressional offices on Capitol Hill; other non-profits concerned with policy in central and eastern Europe, like the Joint Baltic American National Committee (JBANC) and the Central and East European Coalition (CEEC); think tanks, like Rand, the Atlantic Council and the Heritage Foundation; and government agencies, like the State and Defense Departments.  This might kind of sound like a review of your junior high civics class, but I’ll try to keep it specific to the process as it relates to Estonia and where you can get involved, too!

The Hill and Non-profits

Congress is where the rubber meets the road.  They pass budgets and laws, and without them, there’s no movement or direction (some may argue that there’s no movement or direction in Congress, but that’s another topic beyond my scope of coverage!).  Groups like EANC, JBANC and CEEC stay informed on issues and legislation that relate to our regions of interest and visit Congressional staffers to discuss their importance.  The staffers in turn let their Senators and Representatives know that their constituents are interested in legislation regarding the region.

This is where constituent action can really make a difference – I’ve heard staffers say that your representatives in Congress want to hear from you!  Contacting your Congressperson directly is the best way to get your voice heard.  One of my jobs is to let you know about legislation that might be of interest and how to contact your rep.  

A great place to start is with the House Baltic Caucus (HBC).  JBANC recently published a call to action for continued funding for U.S. support to the Baltics here, including a link to a sample letter you can personalize and send yourself, a link to the list of current members of the HBC, and a link where you can double-check who your representative is.  They also published a Wikipedia page on the HBC at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_Baltic_Caucus.  Please check them out!

Think tanks 

Every week it seems there’s at least one new report release or panel discussion on NATO’s readiness, Russia’s behavior, or European security.  They’re usually very interesting and thorough and provide an insightful perspective on the topics at hand.  I’ll just share couple of my favorites: 

One study is about the Russian-speaking population in Estonia.  It found that an invasion similar to Russia’s advances in Ukraine is unlikely to succeed in Estonia because of the cultural differences between the two diasporas.  A synopsis is here if you don’t want to read the full 19-page report.

An Atlantic Council report looks at transatlantic security and stresses the need for our European allies to increase their defense budgets and take more responsibility for preserving their stability.  The panel discussion suggested that some European nations became complacent thanks to the peace dividend of the 1990s and have taken for granted that the U.S. would provide for their security.  Now that new challenges are arising, more equal teamwork is required to meet them.

And finally, this report from the RAND Corporation has gotten the most buzz in the last few weeks.  It’s the one that predicted through extensive war gaming scenarios that a Russian invasion of Estonia or Latvia would reach their capitals in no more than 60 hours, leaving NATO with no good options for responding. 

Both of the security reports provide recommendations for meeting the shortfalls they foresee.  The piece that’s missing is analysis of how likely a Russian invasion of NATO territory really is.  While they are based in rigorous academic methods, to me, they still boil down to speculation.  One thing most experts seem to agree on is that Putin is proving to be unpredictable, strategically-minded and willing to engage in behavior that has taken the world by surprise.  Whether he actually has the audacity to test NATO’s resolve remains to (and let’s hope never will) be seen.

Government agencies

The State and Defense Departments seem to be the practical ones of the bunch.  They take in information from a wide array of sources, to include the media, think tank reports and their own governmental networks, and determine their policy priorities, which turn into budget proposals to Congress.  The State Nordic-Baltic team recognizes the value of keeping interested citizens informed and has been considerate enough to meet with JBANC representatives regularly over the years.  For summary of the last meeting, see our website:  www.estosite.org/eanc-activities/.  It’s the second article on the page.

The government policymakers have access to information the rest of us don’t and on the topic of European security, they have expressed doubt that an attack on the Baltic States is imminent.  Their current policy reflects the need to pay attention to and deter any threats by bolstering NATO’s capabilities in Europe.  Their and the Obama administration’s answer since the events in Ukraine has been the European Reassurance Initiative (ERI), which so far has received wide bipartisan support in Congress and is expected to do so again for 2017.  ERI came out of the NATO summit in Wales in 2014 and will likely be adjusted based on outcomes from the upcoming summit in Warsaw in July.  In any case, U.S. support of European security shows no signs of dwindling.  Stay tuned for updates after the Warsaw summit and in the next administration!Karl Altau (JBANC) & Karin Shuey (EANC)

So, that’s my world as your representative in Washington.  It’s a lot to sort through and make sense of, and getting the hang of it will be a process.  I hope that as I figure things out, you’ll find some interesting information in my posts and share your comments and questions, which I’ll answer as well as my understanding of the issues allows.  

Wednesday
Feb242016

COALITION OF HERITAGE COMMUNITIES CONDEMNS RUSSIAN AGGRESSION IN SYRIA––CALLS FOR DETERMINED U.S. RESPONSE

Press Release from Joint Baltic American National Committee 2/17/16

(Washington, DC) -  A coalition of heritage communities in the United States today  submitted a letter to  President. Obama and his administration condemning ongoing Russian aggression and calling for a determined  US response to it. The letter was precipitated  by the most recent Russian  bombing of Aleppo, Syria.  Reportedly thousands  were   killed and over 70,000  civilians were displaced  from their homes. The letter noted that this is the most recent  case of Russian aggression,  which was   previously manifested in Ukraine, Turkey, and the Baltic countries.
 
The letter was submitted to President Barack Obama, Secretary of State John Kerry, U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. Samantha Power, Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee Ed Royce, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Bob Corker.
 
The coalition  encompasses eleven  national organizations including the largest Syrian American, Ukrainian American, Turkish American, and Baltic American organizations in the United States as well as Libyan American, Circassian American, and Crimean Tartar American organizations. (A  complete list of organizations  is provided below.)
 
The coalition  urges the United States  to initiate specific  responses including  the creation of a safe zone in Syria for displaced civilians,  providing needed arms and training  for the Ukrainian armed forces, expelling Russia from the international SWIFT  banking network,  placing permanent NATO  forces in the Baltics, and  supporting NATO-member Turkey  in its response to Moscow’s hostile stance to it.
 
“Putin’s aggression around the world must be stopped. Only yesterday Russia bombed a hospital in Idlib, Syria run by Doctors Without Borders. We must cease looking the other way as Putin threatens international peace and security,”  stated Mirna Barq, President of the Syrian American Council.
 
“Americans of Baltic heritage are  appalled at the  horrific  reports and pictures coming out of Syria, and particularly  from Aleppo of late” said Karl Altau of the Joint Baltic American National Committee. “This is part of Putin's aggressive pattern: first Georgia,  then Crimea and Ukraine, and now Syria. What Putin's regime is currently perpetrating against the Syrian people is an outrage and is condemned by our communities. We cannot ignore this aggression. The West must respond to it directly and  effectively,” he concluded.

 

The full text of the letter is:

February 10th 2016

Senator Robert Corker, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee,

Senator Benjamin Cardin, Ranking Member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee,

Rep. Ed Royce, Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee,

Rep. Eliot Engel, Ranking Member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee,

As concerned Americans and organizations representing a diverse group of ethnic communities, we write this letter to sound the alarm regarding the United States’ policy towards Russia.

From Transnistria in Moldova, to the illegal annexation of Crimea in Ukraine, Putin continues to violate the territorial integrity of multiple states in violation of international agreements and United Nations principles. The Budapest Memorandum, the Helsinki Final Act, the 6-point ceasefire plan with Georgia, and the Minsk agreements, all have fallen prey to Russia's aggression and disingenuousness in international affairs. Military provocations, airspace violations, ground invasions, and even threats of nuclear assault have become increasingly frequent in Putin's bullying of neighboring states, a phenomenon that cannot be allowed to continue. 

When the people of Ukraine took to the streets to demand more democratic freedoms and closer integration with Europe, Russia responded by invading and illegally occupying the Crimean peninsula, an action condemned at the UN by 100 member states. For a large number of Ukrainian nationals, journalists and the indigenous Crimean Tatar people who remain vulnerable in Crimea, fundamental human rights and freedoms have been eliminated or repeatedly violated according to the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights and the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. Following the invasion of Crimea, Russia then encroached upon Eastern Ukraine, militarily invading and occupying additional Ukrainian territories, in the process killing over 9,000, and displacing more than one million. According to the New York Times, 3.2 million Ukrainians now live amid destruction or are in dire need of humanitarian aid. Russia, to the point of absurdity, continues to deny the daily plethora of evidence that it is directly responsible for these events. When Russia’s separatist army shot down a passenger airliner over Eastern Ukraine, killing nearly 300 people, Russia flooded the media with false information and denials, ensuring that nobody was brought to justice. Its powers of obstruction may be as dangerous as its direct military action, as it protects war criminals and renders all negotiations and agreements null before they are even signed, a reality that the world must remember as it negotiates Syria’s fate with Russia. 

As in Ukraine, Russia continues to lie about its intentions and actions in Syria. Although Russia claims that its airstrikes are meant to target ISIS, Russian warplanes have in fact perpetrated several deliberate massacres of civilians and have systematically destroyed critical civilian infrastructure (hospitals, schools, markets) in violation of international law. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, since late September 2015, Russian airstrikes in Syria have killed over 2,300 people, including 792 civilians and 180 children.

Russian warplanes are likely assisting ISIS more than impeding it. The bulk of Russian operations in Syria have mainly targeted U.S.-backed opposition groups, who are also fighting ISIS. Additionally, they have propped up the Assad regime, which is buying oil from ISIS. Russia continues to coordinate its military aggression in Syria with U.S.-designated terrorist organizations including the Quds Force of Iran and its subsidiary Hezbollah. It should be noted that Russian coordination with Qassem Soleimani, the head of the Quds Force, is a direct violation of UN sanctions on Iran.

Even more ominously, Russia continues to antagonize NATO member Turkey, with the largest army in NATO besides the U.S. After constant airspace violations, followed by Turkey's shooting down a Russian jet, Russia bombed Turkish aid convoys and facilities and increasing the bombing of Syrian Turkmen fighting both Assad and ISIS. Increasingly lethal air defense systems, useless against ISIS, continue to be deployed by the Russians to ward off any Turkish or Coalition response, and Russia has begun imposing sanctions on Turkey. Furthermore, constant false accusations that the Turkish government is directly and intentionally supporting ISIS fill the Russian media. Unless the U.S. pushes back against both the false information as well as the increasing provocations, it will set a dangerous precedent for NATO allies all over the world threatened by Russia. 

The United States must take a stand for international peace and security. If the U.S. does not begin to curb Putin's aggressions now, it will have to do so under even more adverse circumstances and at a much higher cost. Inevitably, the Middle East will become even more unstable than at present, and Eastern Europe faces the same threat.

We therefore recommend the following multi-faceted approach:

•       Significant lethal assistance to the Ukrainian Armed Forces, as well as expansion of the “Fearless Guardian II” training program;

•       The intensification of sanctions on Russia, including a possible ban on SWIFT banking, until Russia begins to respect international law and cease its violations;

•       A permanent NATO troop presence at brigade strength, including at least one sizable American contingent in the Baltics as a deterrent;

•       A ‘safe zone’ under the protection of U.S. and allied forces in Syria to protect civilians from airstrikes and pressure Russia to end its bombing campaign;

•       To strongly support NATO ally Turkey’s right to defend itself from Russian threats and provocations; 

The United States must move immediately, and in partnership with the international community, to curb and reverse Russia's aggressions in Eurasia and the Middle East. U.S. leadership is necessary to achieve this end. If not us, then who? And if not now, when?

American Latvian Association

Assembly of Turkish American Associations

Circassian Cultural Institute

Estonian American National Council

Free Russia Foundation

Joint Baltic American National Committee

Libyan American Public Affairs Council

Lithuanian American Council

Syrian American Council

Ukraine Congress Committee of America

World Congress of Crimean Tatars - Dünya Qırım Tatar Kongresi

-- 

Omar Hossino

Syrian American Council

Thursday
Dec172015

STATEMENT on passage of FY16 Omnibus bill and Ukraine funding

Today [Dec. 16, 2015], a coalition of advocates and stakeholders advocating enhanced U.S. economic, military and humanitarian assistance for Ukraine (list of organizations follow below) issued the following statement in response to the passage of the Fiscal Year 2016 omnibus appropriations bill: 

The Ukraine Working Group welcomes passage of the Fiscal Year 2016 omnibus appropriations bill, which includes vital economic, military, and humanitarian assistance for Ukraine. These resources will build upon the $190 million in new assistance recently announced by Vice President Biden in Kyiv. 

While we believe the funding levels approved in this bill demonstrate the United States’ continued commitment to an independent and free Ukraine, we are concerned that the amount of assistance still falls short of what is needed to comprehensively address the critical economic, security, and humanitarian relief needs of the Ukrainian people. 

As organizations dedicated to ensuring that Ukraine thrives as a free, democratic nation, we urge Congress and the Obama administration to provide strong American leadership and much-needed increases in Ukraine assistance in the months ahead as part of the Fiscal Year 2017 budget. 

The Ukraine Working Group includes the American Center for a European Ukraine; American Hungarian Federation; American Latvian Association; Armenian Assembly of America; Belarusan-American Association; Estonian American National Council; Georgian Association in the USA; Hungarian American Coalition; Joint Baltic American National Committee; Lithuanian American Community, Inc.; Lithuanian-American Council; New International Leadership Institute; Polish American Congress; Slovak League of America; Ukrainian Congress Committee of America; Ukrainian Federation of America; U.S.-Ukraine Foundation; and the Volya Institute For Contemporary Law And Society.

 

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